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A Woman’s Road to Modesty: Hijab and Niqab

August 28, 2013 Leave a comment

Allah Ta’ala says: “And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts from sin and not show of their adornment except only that which is apparent, and draw their headcovers over their necks and bosoms and not reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women (i.e., their sisters in Islam), or their female slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants free of physical desires, or small children who have no sense of women’s nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn unto Allah altogether, O you Believers, in order that you may attain success.[An-Nur, 24:31]

URL: http://able2know.org/topic/158459-7

Hijab In The Al-Quran And Sunnah

The Requirements of Women’s Hijab in Accordance with the Qur’an, the Authentic Sunnah and the Practice of the Pious Predecessors.

Introduction:

This essay will attempt to briefly yet concisely enumerate the basic requirements regarding Muslim women’s dress (Hijab) as stipulated by the Shari’ah (Divine Law) of Islam. The term Hijab, includes not only dress and covering the body, but methods of behavior before members of the same and/or opposite sex, promoting privacy for females and prohibiting loose intermingling between males and females, and thereby encouraging modesty, decency, chastity and above all, respect and worship of Allah.

Minor differences exist among the scholars regarding the actual number of the requirements because of varying methods used by them in codifying. The ones mentioned here represent the ones agreed upon by the overwhelming majority of scholars and are all solidly backed by firm evidence taken from the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the practice of the Sahabah (the Companions).

The First Requirement: The Extent of Covering

The dress worn in public must cover the entire body except what has been specifically excluded, based upon the following proofs:

Allah Ta’ala says: “And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts from sin and not show of their adornment except only that which is apparent, and draw their headcovers over their necks and bosoms and not reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women (i.e., their sisters in Islam), or their female slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants free of physical desires, or small children who have no sense of women’s nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn unto Allah altogether, O you Believers, in order that you may attain success.[An-Nur, 24:31]

The word zeenah in the aayah above, literally means “adornment”, and includes both (a) that which Allah has adorned, i.e., the woman’s natural and/or physical beauty, and (b) that with which they adorn themselves, i.e., jewelry, eye shadow, attractive clothing, hand dye, etc. Soorat An-Nur spells out specifically the commands concerning the fact that a woman’s natural beauty and her adornments are to be concealed from strangers except by (1) What may show due to accidental or uncontrollable factors such as the blowing of the wind, etc., and (2) What has been exempted (see explanation at end of this section). Allah also says:

O Prophet, Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their outer garments about themselves (when they go out). That is better so that they may be recognised and not molested. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. [Al-Ahzaab, 33:59]

Abu Dawood narrates that `Aishah (RAA) said: “Asmaa’ the daughter of Abu Bakr (RAA) came to see the Messenger of Allah (SAAWS) wearing a thin dress; so Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) turned away from her and said: O Asmaa’, once a woman reaches the age of menstruation, no part of her body should be seen but this-and he pointed to his face and hands.

The word khumur (pl. of khimar) refers to a cloth which covers the head (including the ears), hair, neck and bosom. The esteemed mufaasir (Quranic interpreter) Al-Qurtubi explains: “Women in the past used to cover their heads with the khimar, throwing its ends over their backs. This left the neck and the upper part of the chest bare, in the manner of the Christians. Then Allah commanded them to cover those parts with the khimar.”

Allah states further in this aayah:

…And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornments The women in the time of the Prophet (SAAWS) wore anklets which could be employed to attract attention by stamping their feet, thereby making the anklets tinkle. This practice is not only forbidden by Allah, but moreover, shows that the legs and ankles are to be covered as well. Some of the modern day Hanafi scholars are of the mistaken view that a woman can display her feet, a portion of her forearms and her ears; yet there is NO authentic proof from the practice of the Prophet (SAAWS) or his Sahabah to uphold such a view.

Amongst the authentic hadeeths which clarify this point is the following: Ibn `Umar (RAA) reported that the Messenger of Allah (SAAWS) said: On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will not look at the man who trails his garment along out of pride. Umm Salamah then asked: What should women do with (the hems of) their garments? He replied: Let them lower them a handspan. She said: Their feet would be exposed! He then said: Let them lower them a forearm’s length but no more. [Reported by At-Tabarani-Sahih]

The aayah of Soorat An-Nur also lists in detail those with whom a woman is permitted to be more at ease. Furthermore, the ayah from Soorat Al-Ahzab orders Muslim women to draw their outer garments about themselves when they go out. Abu Dawood related that `Aishah (RAA) said: “After this Aayah was revealed the women of the Ansar appeared like crows.” (because of the color and shape of the cloaks they wore).

Hence, an outer garment or cloak must be worn by a Muslim woman whenever she goes out in public or if she is in the presence of strangers within her own home or the home of a close relative. Slight differences have arisen amongst the scholars concerning the precise meaning of …except only that which is apparent… from Soorah An-Nur which according to Ibn `Abaas (RAA), includes “the face, the two hands, and rings. This view is shared by Ibn `Umar, `Ata’a, and others from the Tabi’een.” [Tafseer Ibn Kathir]

Also, Imam Ash-Showkani states concerning this same ayaat, that it includes: “The dress, the face, and the two hands”; Ibn `Abaas and Qatadah have stated: “The adornments include eye shadow (i.e., Kuhul), bracelets, hand dye, and rings, and it is permissable for women to (uncover) them.” [Fateh Al-Qadeer]

The major point of difference among the scholars concerns the hadeeth of Asmaa’ (RAA) i.e., that the face and hands need not be covered; a number of the scholars have maintained that the face and hands must also be covered, because it was the practice of the wives of the Prophet (SAAWS) and the wives of the Sahabah to cover themselves completely according to authentic hadeeths. The above point has been a topic of debate amongst the scholars both past and present and will be dealt with, Insha’ Allah at the end of this essay.

The Second Requirement: Thickness

The garment should be thick and opaque so as not to display the skin color and form of the body beneath it. Delicate or transparent clothing does not constitute a proper covering. The Sahabah were very stern on this and regarded scanty clothing in public as an indicator of a woman’s lack of belief. Al-Qurtubi reports a narration from `Aishah (RAA) that some women from Banu Tamim came to see her wearing transparent clothing. `Aishah said to them: “If you are are believing women, these are not the clothes of believing women.” He also reports that a bride came to see her wearing a sheer, transparent khimaar, whereupon `Aishah (RAA) said: “A woman who wears such clothing does not believe in Soorat An-Nur.”

Moreover, the following hadeeth makes this point graphically clear. Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) said: There will be in the last of my Ummah (nation of believers), scantily dressed women, the hair on the top of their heads like a camel’s hump. Curse them, for verily they are cursed. In another version he said: …scantily dressed women, who go astray and make others go astray; they will not enter Paradise nor smell its fragrance, although it can be smelled from afar. [At-Tabarani and Sahih Muslim] “Scantily dressed women” are those who wear clothing which reveals more than it conceals, thereby increasing her attractiveness while opening the path to a host of evils.

The Third Requirement: Looseness

The clothing must hang loosely enough and not be so tight-fitting as to show the shape and size of the woman’s body. The reason for wearing a garment which is wide and loose fitting is that the function of Muslim women’s clothing is to eliminate the lure and beauty of her body from the eye of the beholder. Skin-tight body suits, etc. may conceal the skin color, yet they display the size and shape of the limbs and body. The following hadeeth proves this point clearly: Usamah ibn Zaid said: Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) gave me a gift of thick Coptic cloth he had recieved as a gift from Dahiah Al-Kalbi, and so I gave it to my wife. Thereafter the Prophet (SAAWS) asked me: Why didn’t you wear the Coptic cloth? I replied: I gave it to my wife. the Prophet (SAAWS) then said: Tell her to wear a thick gown under it (the Coptic garment) for I fear that it may describe the size of her limbs. [Narrated by Ahmad, Al-Bayhaqi, and Al-Haakim]

The Fourth Requirement: Color, Appearance and Demeanor

Allah ta’ala says:

“O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women; if you fear (Allah), then do not be too pleasent of speech, lest one in whose heart is a disease should feel desire (for you).” [Al-Ahzab, 33:32]

The reason for the revelation of this verse is not the fear of distrust nor misbehavior on the part of the women, but rather to prevent them from speaking invitingly, walking seductively, or dressing revealingly so as to arouse sexual desire in the heart of lecherous and evil men. Seductive dressing and enticing speech are the characteristics of ill-intentioned women, not Muslims. Al-Qurtubi mentions that Mujahid (RAA) said: “Women (before the advent of Islam) used to walk about (alluringly) among men.” Qatadah (RAA) said: “They used to walk in a sensuous and seductive manner.” Maqatil (RAA) said: “The women used to wear an untied cloth on their heads, while provocatively toying with their necklaces, earrings and other ornamental jewelry.” Furthermore, Allah has commanded women not to display their beauty, meaning both natural and acquired beauty. Allah commands the believing women thus:

…And do not make a display of yourselves like the displaying of the ignorance of long ago… [Al-Ahzaab, 33:33]

A garment which is intended to conceal a woman and her beauty from public view cannot be a thing which enhances her beauty. Therefore, the garment cannot contain bright colors, bold designs or shiny and reflective material that draw men’s attention to the wearer. The Arabic word above, At-Tabarruj, means not only “to display oneself” but also “to spruce up one’s charms for the purpose of exciting desire”.

Imam Adh-Dhahabi says in his book Kitab Al-Kaba’ir (The Book of Major Sins): “Amongst the deeds which a woman is cursed for are displaying the adornments she wears, wearing perfume when she goes out, and wearing colorful clothes…” Hence, the Muslim woman is encouraged to wear muted, somber colors and to avoid bright designs, patterns and colors.

This point should serve also as a reminder to Muslim men who are in positions of responsibility for their women, that Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) has warned in an authentic hadeeth narrated by `Abdullah ibn `Amr ibn Al-`Aas that amongst the three individuals who would not enter Jennah (Paradise) would be:

Ad-Dayooth, who is contented with obscenity within his family. i.e., a cuckold-a man who permits the women for whom he is responsible, such as his wife, daughter, etc., to engage in illicit sexual relations or to display their beauty to men, thereby stimulating sexual desire.

The Fifth Requirement: Difference from Men’s Clothing

The clothing of a Muslim woman must not resemble the clothing of men. The following two hadeeth help to explain this. Abu Hurayrah (RAA) said: Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) cursed the man who wears women’s clothes and the woman who wears men’s clothes. [Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah-Saheeh]

`Abdullah ibn `Umar (RAA) said he heard Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) say: The man who resembles a woman and the woman who resembles a man is not of us (i.e., not of the believers). [Ahmad and At-Tabarani-Saheeh]

Additionally, Abu Dawood relates a narration from Umm Salamah (RAA) which shows that the Prophet (SAAWS) forbade women to bundle their Khumoor on their heads in such a way as to resemble the turban of a man. Western Muslim sisters should pay specific attention to this point since regretfully this has become a widespread practice amongst them.

The Sixth Requirement: Difference from the Clothing of Unbelievers

Her clothing must not resemble the clothing of unbelievers. This is a general ruling of the Shari’ah which encompasses not only dress but also such things as manners, customs, religious practices and festivities, transactions, etc. Indeed, dissimilarity with unbelievers is a precedent that was established by the first generation of Islam. The following two hadeeth and statement of `Umar (RAA) will help to clarify this position: `Abdullah ibn `Amr ibn Al-`Aas said: Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) saw me wearing two saffron-colored garments, so he said: Indeed, these are the clothes of kuffar (unbelievers), so do not wear them. [Sahih Muslim]

`Abdullah ibn `Umar (RAA) said: Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) stated: Whoever resembles a people is one of them. [Abu Dawood] Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari (RAA) related that `Umar (RAA) told him: “…I shall not honor those whom Allah has dishonored, nor esteem those He has humbled, nor bring close those whom He has kept afar.” [Ahmad]

The Seventh Requirement: No Vain or Ostentatious Dressing

The woman’s dress must not be an expression of ostentation, vanity or as a status symbol by being excessively showy or expensive, nor must it be excessively tattered so as to gain admiration and fame for being humble. Ibn `Umar (RAA) reported that Allah’s Messenger (SAAWS) said: Whoever dresses for ostentation in this world, Allah will dress that person in a dress of humiliation on the Day of Resurrection, and then set it on fire. [Abu Dawood]

The Niqab (Face Veil: Between Mustahab (Recommendable) and Wajib (Mandatory) The esteemed Quranic commentators At-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, Ash-Shanqeeti and others have elaborated on the form of Hijab or Jilbab i.e., “outer garments” as viewed by the Companions of the Prophet (SAAWS), as well as the circumstances surrounding the revelation of Soorah Al-Ahzab, 33:59 quoted at the beginning of this essay.

They state that when the believing women used to go out at night (wearing ordinary clothes) to answer the call of nature, some hypocrites tried to annoy them, thinking the women were slavegirls. The women thereby would scream out loudly causing these hypocrites to flee. Thereupon Allah (AWJ) revealed this Ayaat. Al-Qurtubi states that the Jilbab is “a cloth which covers the entire body…Ibn `Abaas and `Ubaidah As-Salmani have said that it is to be fully wrapped around the women’s body, so that nothing appears but one eye with which she can see.” The Tabi’ee, Qatadah (RAA), stated that the Jilbab should be wrapped and fixed from above the forehead and made to cover the nose, (although the eyes are to show) and the chest and most of the face are to be covered.

Furthermore, it has been authentically related in Sahih Al-Bukhari, the Muwatta of Imam Malik and the Sunan of Abu Dawood that the Prophet (SAAWS) forbade women from covering their faces and hands during their perfomance of Salat, or while in a state of Ihram. This indicates clearly that wearing the face veil (Niqab or Burqa’a) was a common practice during the time of the Messenger of Allah (SAAWS), and not as some people claim, a cultural practice that appeared years later.

Among the proofs used by the scholars regarding the face veil are the following: `Aishah (RAA) said: “May Allah bestow His Mercy on the first Muhajirat (emigrants). When Allah revealed:…and draw their headcovers over their necks and bosoms… they tore their (material) and covered themselves with it.” [Al-Bukhari]

Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, known as “Amir Al-Mu’mineen in Hadeeth” has explained that “covered themselves” means: “covered their faces.” [Fateh Al-Bari]. Additionally, after the battle of Khaybar, the Prophet (SAAWS) married Safiyah bint Huyai. The Muslims said amongst themselves, “Will she (Safiyah) be one of the Mothers of the Believers (i.e., wives of the Prophet) or just what his right hand possesses (i.e., slavegirl). Some of them said: If he (SAAWS) makes her observe Hijab, then she will be one of the Mothers of the Believers, and if he does not make her observe Hijab, then she will be what his right hand possesses. So when he departed (for Medina), he made a place for her behind him (on his camel) and made her observe Hijab” [Al-Bukhari]

The issue of the Niqab has continued to arouse extended controversy and debate between `Ulama (scholars) and Fuqaha (jurists) both past and present concerning whether it is Wajib (mandatory) or Mustahab (favored by Allah) (SWT) for the woman. And whether she subsequently falls into sin by exposing her face or not. Each of the two sides clings to their own opinions which they support with evidences from the Quranic ayaat, the Prophetic hadeeths and the practice of the Sahabah and their views.

One of the views on this is that the Niqab is legally binding on the woman-she who abandons it is a sinner. It says that the woman’s face which she is ordered not to reveal to non-relatives is definitely part of the `Auwrah. The other view says that the Niqab is simply recommended and encourages the woman to cover her face; however, it does not place it on the level of mandatory. Consequently, this opinion does not consider the woman falling into sin when she exposes and unveils her face as long as in doing so, she has not applied facial makeup.

The dispute continues between the two viewpoints and takes, on certain occasions, bitter aspects. The advocates for making the face veil mandatory accuses the other group of following their own desires. While the other group accuses their opponents with being obstinate fanatics. The matter is much broader than this and does not require accusations of obstinance or of following the desires but rather requires reaching Ijtihad (judgement based on the Shari’ah) and following Dalil (proof from the Shari’ah) to the best of one’s ability.

To give the benefit of the doubt in such a situation is better and most befitting for the Muslim, limiting the points of difference and narrowing the gap of disagreement are two factors which are sought after. I do not want in this rush to take a side with one group over the other; nor to validate the proofs of which I see the truth in this issue. Rather the aim is, as I said, to narrow the controversy and to highlight the points agreed upon. Thereby, we may adopt them and work on spreading them. As for the point of disagreement-it will remain under the category of Ijtihad whose advocate will be rewarded whether he attains truth or was mistaken.

First: Since the two views agree upon the legitimacy of the Niqab, that it is a consumate perfection for a woman and more virtuous for her, as well as closer to the aims of the Shari’ah-which is to prevent Fitnah, and is an obstruction to excuses as well as severing the path of those who follow their lusts, it is therefore more appropiate, that the efforts should be directed to encourage wearing the Niqab, and to motivate people towards it. And to show and explain it’s virtues and merits. This implies that covering the face with the Niqab should be the general rule and uncovering the face the exception.

Second: In spite of the fact that there are differing views on the Islamic ruling regarding whether the Niqab is obligatory or recommended, it is undoubtably one’s duty to unify the call for it and cooperate as much as possible in urging young women about its necessity and to limit their desire to expose their faces as much as possible. Indeed, it is merely gracious according to both parties. Not as is happening now between opposing sides which is to leave the matter loose and dangling, through the claim that the Niqab is only Mustahab, and being aloof from spreading the call for it. This is indeed an inversion of the truth and poor judgement in the matter.

Hence, my fellow Muslims, when you are asked: what is the form of the Hijab according to the Shari’ah, especially from a woman who loves the Deen?, you should urge and encourage her to wear the Niqab-even if you are of the opinion that it is only Mustahab.

Lastly: We truly hope from Allah (SWT) for the day when all believing women rush to cover their faces with full contentment of their souls and desire for their deen is the strongest of desires. This is a hope which, without any doubt, is shared with me by those who are of the opinion of it being Mustahab and those who are of the opinion of it being Wajib.

I pray that Allah (AWJ) guide us along the Straight Path, and protect us from deviation after having guidance. And may Allah bless the Leader of His Messengers, Muhammad (SAAWS), his family and his companions, and all who follow in their footsteps until the Final Hour, Ameen.

Islamic World.net
Sister’s Place

URL: http://able2know.org/topic/158459-7

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Ibn Baz (rahimahullah) on slandering Duaat.

November 1, 2011 Leave a comment

Question:

In recent days there has been a lot of slander against those who call people to Islam (daa’iyahs) and dividing them into groups and categories. What is your opinion on that?

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

Allaah has enjoined justice and good treatment of others, and He has forbidden wrongdoing, hatred and enmity. Allaah sent His Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) with the same message as He sent all the Messengers, namely the call to Tawheed and to worship of Allaah alone. He commanded him to establish justice and forbade him to do the opposite, i.e., to worship anything other than Allaah, to cause division and to transgress against the rights of others.

In these days it has become very common that people who claim to have knowledge and to be calling people to good slander many of their brothers among the well-known daa’iyahs, and they talk about the seekers of knowledge, daa’iyahs and lecturers. They do that in secret in their own gatherings, but it may be recorded on tapes that are distributed among the people, and they may do it openly in public lectures in the mosques. This behaviour goes against the commands of Allaah and His Messenger in several ways.

1 – It is a transgression against the rights of the Muslims, and against the elite of the people, namely the seekers of knowledge and daa’iyahs who are striving to make the people aware and to teach them and correct their beliefs and practices, and to organize lessons and lectures, and to write beneficial books.

2 – It splits the Muslims and causes division in their ranks. They are the most in need of unity and they need to keep away from division, discord and too much gossip amongst themselves, especially when the daa’iyahs who are being slandered are from among the Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah who are well known for their opposition to bid’ah (innovation) and myth, and for standing up against those who promote such things, and for exposing their plots and tricks. We see no benefit to be gained by such actions, except for the enemies who lie in wait for opportunities to harm the Muslims, such as the kaafirs, hypocrites and followers of bid’ah and misguidance.

3 – This action offers support and help for the self-serving among the secularists, westernizers and other heretics who are well known for stirring up trouble among the daa’iyahs and telling lies against them, and inciting people against them in their writings and recordings. It is contrary to Islamic brotherhood for those who are too hasty to help their enemies against their brothers among the seekers of knowledge, daa’iyahs and others.

4 – This spreads corrupts ideas in the hearts and minds of the common folk and elite; it spreads and propagates lies and false rumours, and causes a great deal of backbiting and slander. It leaves the door wide open to evil people who persist in spreading doubts and stirring up fitnah, and who are keen to cause harm to the believers by accusing them of things that they did not do.

5 – Much of what is being said has no basis in reality; rather these are illusions which the Shaytaan has made attractive to them, through which he has tempted them. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion; indeed some suspicions are sins. And spy not, neither backbite one another…”[al-Hujuraat 49:12]

The believer should interpret what his Muslim brother says in the best possible way. One of the salaf said: Never think of something that is said by your brother as being bad when you still find room for a good interpretation.

6 – Whatever ijtihaad is produced by some scholars or seekers of knowledge, in areas where ijtihaad is permitted, the author of said ijtihaad cannot be blamed or rebuked for it, so long as he is qualified to engage in ijtihaad. If someone else has a different opinion, it is better for him to debate with him in a proper manner, striving to reach the truth via the shortest route and leaving no room for the insinuating whispers of the Shaytaan or for him to cause trouble among the believers. If that is not possible, and someone thinks that he has no choice but to explain what is wrong with his ijtihaad, then he should choose the best wording and the most subtle way of explaining, and not resort to attacking, slandering or going to extremes in criticizing him, which may cause others to reject the truth or to turn away from it. He should also avoid criticizing specific people, casting aspersions upon their intentions or saying unnecessary or irrelevant things about them. In such cases the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would say, “What is the matter with some people who say such and such…?”

The advice I offer to these brothers who have fallen into the sin of slandering the daa’iyahs is to repent to Allaah for the things that they have written or said that may have corrupted the hearts of some youth and filled them with hatred and grudges, and kept them from seeking beneficial knowledge or from calling people to Allaah by making them preoccupied with gossip and talking about this one and that one, and seeking out faults for which they could criticize people, and going to extremes in doing that.

I also advise them to offer expiation for the things that they have done by writing and other means that they think they should not have done, and to remove from people’s minds the wrong ideas they may have given them. They should focus on fruitful actions which will bring them closer to Allaah and will be beneficial to people, and they should beware of being too hasty to accuse people of kufr, fisq and bid’ah without any clear evidence or proof. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever says to his brother ‘O kaafir!’ one of them will be deserving of that description.” (Saheeh, agreed upon).

It is prescribed for those who call others to the truth and for seekers of knowledge, if they are uncertain about something said by a scholar or anyone else, to refer to the prominent scholars and to ask them, so that they can explain the facts of the matter to them and remove the confusion and doubt from their minds, in accordance with the words of Allaah in Soorat al-Nisaa’ (interpretatiuon of the meaning):

“When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people); if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly). Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allaah upon you, you would have followed Shaytaan (Satan), save a few of you”[al-Nisaa’ 4:83]

And Allaah is the One Whom we ask to reform all the Muslims and to unite their hearts in taqwa and to bring the scholars of the Muslims and those who call to the truth together in doing that which pleases Him and will benefit His slaves. May He unite them in following guidance and protect them against all the causes of division and dissent; may He support the truth through them and humiliate falsehood through them, for He is the One Who is able to do that. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions, and those who follow his guidance until the Day of Resurrection.

Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwi’ah li Samaahat al-Shaykh ‘Abd al- ‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him), vol. 7, p. 311.

Source: http://quransunnahandsalafussaleh.blogspot.com/2011/07/ibn-baz-rahimahullah-on-slandering.html

Etiquette of Huffaz

June 21, 2011 Leave a comment

[ Taken from Dr. Riaz Ansary’s (IOU Instructor) notes on Characteristics of Mufassir]

Etiquette of a Haafiz

Qurtubee said: One who memorizes the Qur’an should first of all purify his intention
to seek thereby the pleasure of Allah, the Glorious and Magnificent.
Then he should discipline himself to recite it day and night inside and outside salaah
so that he doesn’t forget it, for it is like a hobbled camel. If the owner attends to it he
will retain it, but if he should neglect it for a little while it will make off.1
He should be engaged in the praise of Allah, expressing gratitude to Him,
remembering Him and depending upon Him, seeking His help, yearning for Him, and
binding himself to Him.
[He should be] mindful of death and prepare himself for it. He should be fearful about
his sins, hopeful of his Lord’s forgiveness, but his fear should be greater in the state of
good health, since he doesn’t know in what state he will die. But he should be more
hopeful than fearful at the time of death as an expression of his good opinion of Allah.
Allaah’s Messenger r said, ‘None of you should die except with a good opinion of
Allah,’2 i.e., that He will forgive him and have mercy upon him.
It befits him to be knowledgeable about the people of his era,
on guard and aloof from his ruler,
actively striving to save his soul, sending before him what he is able to of the
transient goods of his worldly life, striving to discipline himself to the best of his
ability. It befits him to make the most important matter in his eyes scrupulousness in
his deen, making use of the fear of Allah and awareness of His oversight regarding
what He ordered and prohibited.
Ibn Mas’ood said, ‘It befits the memorizer of Qur’an to be known by his night
when people are sleeping, and by his day when people are awake, and by his weeping
when people are laughing, and by his silence when people are discussing
[yakhoodoon], and by his humility when people are prideful, and by his sorrow when
people are making merry.’ ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr said, ‘It doesn’t befit the carrier of the
Qur’an to wade in with those who wade, nor to act ignorant with those who act
ignorant, rather he should forgive and pardon due to the right of the Qur’an, for the
word of Allah is in his breast.’
And it befits him to be extra cautious about avoiding the paths of doubtful
matters.
He should reduce his laughing and his speech in the gatherings of Qur’an and
all other gatherings when there is no benefit in it. He should carry himself with
clemency and dignity. It befits him to be humble with the poor and avoid arrogance
and conceit. He should avoid the dunyaa and its children, if he fears he will be
seduced by temptation. He should abandon wrangling and arguments and bear himself
with gentleness and etiquette.
He should be with those from whom evil is not to be expected and from whom
good is hoped. He should not listen to people who speak badly of others. He should
keep the company of those who will help him to do good and guide him to sincerity
and good character, who will embellish him and not blemish him.
And it befits him to learn the rules of the Qur’an, so that he understands what
Allah intends and what He has made obligatory upon him, and so he will benefit from
what he reads and act upon what he recites. How ugly for a memorizer of the Qur’an
to recite Allah’s commands and laws by heart and yet not know what he is reciting.
For how can he act upon something whose meaning he doesn’t understand? And how
ugly for him to be asked about the understanding of what he recites and he has no idea
about it. Such a person is really like a donkey bearing books on its back.
It befits him to know the Makkan revelations from the Madeenan so he can
distinguish between Allah’s address to His servants at the beginning of Islam from his
address to them at the end of Islam, and what He made obligatory at the beginning of
Islam and what He added on to that at the end of it. The Madeenan verses are
abrogators of Makkan verses in most of the Qur’an, for it is not possible for Makkan
verses to abrogate Madeenan verses. That is because the abrogated always precedes
its abrogator in time of revelation.
And it is a part of his completion that he know the I’raab of the Qur’an and the
meaning of its uncommon words, for that will facilitate his understanding of what he
reads and dispel his uncertainty regarding it. At-Tabaree related the statement of al-
Jarmee, “For thirty years I have been giving fatwaa to the people on the basis of the
Kitaab of Seebawayh.” Muhammad ibn Yazeed explained that that was because al-
Jarmee was a scholar of hadeeth, then when he mastered Seebawayh’s book of
grammar he developed a deep understanding of the meanings of the hadeeth, for
analysis and explanation can be learned from Seebawayh’s book.
After that, one should study the authentically related sunan of the Prophet r,
from which the student can arrive at an understanding of the intent of Allah in His
book, for the Sunnah will open its rules wide open for him.

Ibn Taymiyyah: Principles for Passing Judgement Against the Innovators

June 15, 2011 Leave a comment

The Principles of Shaykh al-Islam for Passing Judgment Against the Innovators

These principles are drawn from the book of Dr. Ahmad al-Hulaybi, Usul al-Hukm ‘Alal-Mubtadi’ah ‘Inda Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (The Principles for Passing Judgment on Innovators in the View of Ibn Taymiyyah), published by Dar al-Fadilah:

1. Seeking excuses for the people of piety and virtue any time they fall into innovation out of Ijtihad, and interpreting their problematic statements in the best light possible. (Abul-Hasan al-Ma’ribi was declared a heretic by Rabee al-Madkhali for espousing this principle)
2. When a Mujtahid errs – whether in fundamental or subsidiary issues – he should not be deemed sinful. Even more so, he should not be declared deviant or a disbeliever.
3. Excusing the innovator on account of his ijtihad does not mean consenting to the innovation he fell into, or permitting others to follow him in it. It is obligatory to rebut his innovation if needed while maintaining proper adab.
4. Not passing judgment on the one who fell into innovation that he is from Ahl al-Ahwa’ wal-Bida’ or having enmity for him on its account, except if the innovation is well-known to the scholars of the Sunnah and severe.
5. No one who has fallen into error in creed or something else can be judged to be doomed for certain, nor can any group be judged for certain to be from the Seventy-Two Astray Sects unless its error is severe.
6. Caution must be exercised in regards to studying the state of a person who has done something that results in kufr or fisq before judging him to be a kafir or fasiq, lest he be judged kafir or fasiq without establishing hujjah against him.
7. Efforts should be made to bring the hearts together and to unify the ranks. Care should be taken not to let differences in secondary issues of Aqidah, etc. be a cause for breaking the bonds of brotherhood and loyalty and animosity (al-wala’ wal-bara’) between Muslims.
8. Being just in mentioning the praiseworthy and blameworthy qualities of the innovators, accepting the truth that they have, and rejecting their falsehood.

CrossPost: [Source Withheld]

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